Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution on Further Vocational Training, «Academy for Standardization, Metrology and Certification (Educational)»
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Journal Kompetentnost': 7 / 167 / 2019


  • 1
    Oil & Gas Innovations
    Authors: V.A. Grushnikov, VINITI RAS, Dr., viniti@mach04.ru
    In all spheres of human activity, an indispensable primary condition for the realization of the most diverse constructive and technological measures of a domestic or industrial nature is their reliable supply with fuel and energy resources. Despite the urgent attempts to replace traditional liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons with alternative and, above all, renewable solar, wind, tidal, etc. sources of energy, which, however, are difficult to realize on a large scale, the usual natural resources - oil and gas not yet interchangeable. This is vividly proved both by the state of the market for supply and demand for them with the struggle for price stability, and by the expansion of their geological prospecting. In addition, huge deposits in the spurs of the sea shelf, ocean basins and in the permafrost of methane hydrate or gas ice are completely undeveloped and are still not practically mastered. Their industrial production is the subject of a long-term technological perspective and gives hope for the energy security of humanity in the future. In the meantime, we are talking about greater availability and degree of extraction of oil from bituminous deposits and gas from underground deposits shale using high technologies. Their use even in difficult conditions of Northern Canada and with extraction from previously conserved low-yield wells of the USA makes such complex oil and gas production competitive and traditional and can be used as geopolitical blackmail and pressure on even economically developed countries.
  • 2
    Planned Obsolescence, Innovation, and Sustainability
    Authors: S.G. Avrutskaya, Dmitry Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Institute of Business Studies RANEPA, Dr. Assoc. Prof., savrutskaya@mail.ru
    I investigated the phenomenon of planned obsolescence from the perspective of innovative management and sustainable development. In the article, I showed that this phenomenon creates benefits not only for manufacturers, but also for consumers. However, the modern concept of sustainable development involves a transition to responsible consumption. This will require both legislative restrictions when manufacturers use the principles of planned obsolescence, as well as changes in the behavior of consumers themselves. Currently, it is necessary that responsible consumption (as one of the goals of sustainable development) has been perceived by companies, primarily the largest transnational corporations, and consumers. This requires both legislative measures at the state and supranational level, as well as a lot of educational work on the formation of a new, responsible consumption model among the population.
  • 3
    Secondary Building Resources: Environmental and Economic Approach to the Classification
    Authors: G.G. Lunev, LLC Recycling of Materials, Scientific Department of Biological, Environmental and Technological Problems of Sustainable Development (Non-profit Association BETPUR), A.M. Prokhorov Academy of Engineering Sciences, Dr., spezstr@yandex.ru 
    Yu.M. Prokhotskiy, Non-profit Association BETPUR, A.M. Prokhorov Academy of Engineering Sciences, Prof. Dr., yum33@mail.ru
    The article deals with the development of the classification system of secondary construction resources (SCR), as one of the factors that determine the direction to improve the efficiency of their processing. Due to the complexity of the construction waste recycling process, the classification of SCR is considered taking into account a number of additional features that ensure the accounting of possible solutions for the collection, sorting, transportation and processing of construction waste, as well as the harmful effects on the environment and the population. We propose an approach to the classification of SCR, by the type of components of economic and environmental effect, reflecting the interaction and interrelationship of all its constituent elements, focused on their further use with maximum efficiency. On the basis of this classification, it is possible to develop the main directions and the program of complex processing of SCR, at the enterprises of the construction industry and in the regions, designed for the long term.
  • 4
    Advantages and Disadvantages Performance Measurement Systems
    Authors: I.M. Makhiyanov, JSC Aeroelectromash, Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University), i-mak63@mail.ru
    I have analyzed four common performance measurement systems based on the recommendations of ISO 9004: 2018. I highlighted their strengths and weaknesses, and clarified the terminology used in Russian literature when translating the concept of Performance Measurement. The analysis allowed me to trace the evolution of these systems and establish that each of them brought innovative ideas and eliminated the weaknesses of its predecessors. At the same time, the considered systems include drawbacks. Common weaknesses were their unsuitability for benchmarking and the lack of clear guidelines for practical use. Additional studies are required. They will evaluate the effectiveness of the developed systems, as organizations will begin to use them only if they are convinced of commercial success.
  • 5
    Technical Means for Measurement, Testing and Control. Terminology
    Authors: V.G. Kutyaykin, Nizhny Novgorod Вranch FSAEI FVT Academy for Standardization, Metrology and Certification, Assoc. Prof. Dr., asms-nn@mail.ru
    I conducted an analysis and comparison of terms used in legal and regulatory documents in the field of ensuring the uniformity of measurements and quality management in relation to technical means for measurement, testing and control. In the course of the study, I found that with metrological support for measuring, testing and monitoring parameters of products, equipment and technological processes, both different operations and different technical means are used. As a result, ambiguity of interpretations, confusion and incorrect identification of operations arise, which entails significant discrepancies with established requirements, especially in the field of state regulation of ensuring the uniformity of measurements. With regard to technical means for measuring, testing and control, this provision is also aggravated by differences in terminology.
  • 6
    The Possibility of Using Interlaboratory Comparative (Сollation) Tests
    Authors: A.P. Druchinin, MSTU STANKIN, 89778895931@mail.ru 
    A.A. Evlashkin, MSTU STANKIN, Evlashkin@gmail.com 
    A.A. Bogatyrev, MSTU STANKIN, Alexbogatyrev@bk.ru
    We considered the possibility use of interlaboratory comparative (collation) tests in laboratories of the verification and calibration in order to confirm the competence of laboratories and metrological services specialists. For this purpose, we verified thermocouple according to GOST 8.338–2002 State system for ensuring the uniformity of measurements. Thermoelectric converters. Verification Technique. As a result of this experiment, we came to the conclusion that interlaboratory comparative (collation) tests allow us not only to evaluate the measuring capabilities of the laboratory, its technical equipment, the correctness of the measurements, the accuracy of the design of calibration / calibration protocols, the correctness of the choice of reference measuring instruments, and personnel qualification (i.e. qualification of laboratories, personnel, equipment), but also to carry out certification of verification techniques for their entry into the State register of measuring instruments
  • 7
    The Level of Sports Results Achievements. Readiness and Forecasting Evaluation System
    Authors: I.G. Pavel’ev, Krasnodar Branch of Academy of Standardization, Metrology and Certification (training) 
    V.V. Lysenko, Kuban State University of Physical Culture, Sports and Tourism, Prof. Dr., v-v-lysenko@yandex.ru 
    E.V. Martianov, Olympic Training Center
    Based on many years of experience with leading athletes — long jumpers, we have developed a system for assessing athletic fitness and predicting the level of achievement of sports results. To organize effective monitoring of the progress and results of the training process, a constant assessment of the dynamics of changes in the level of sports fitness with the help of informative tests is necessary. The proposed method for assessing the information content of control exercises also serves as a means of selecting and predicting sports results. So, we have presented a modern method of monitoring indicators formation that reflect the level of different sides of preparedness, and readiness to show sports results, and the effectiveness of the organization of the quality of the training process. We believe that this method is applicable to any sports. It is possible and necessary to choose the characteristic parameters reflecting at the same time different sides of informativeness for each sport and any types of motor activity, we have substantiated.
  • 8
    Institutional Approach Stages
    Authors: M.I. Skornyakova, D.F. Ustinov Baltic State Technical University VOENMEKH, maria.skorniakova@mail.ru
    The process of economic doctrines development has a long historical period, inextricably linked with changes in society and social relations. It was the level of social relations that set the vector for the development of economic science. I investigated the main aspects of the formation of the institutional approach, analyzed the beginning of the formation of institutionalism as an economically significant direction. I also examined the fundamental principles of the German historical school, the representatives of which created national political economy. It was based not only on politics and economics, but also on the features of the historical development of the state, its culture, religion, and national psychology as factors of influence on the development of the national economy. Scientists argued that in countries at different stages of development, one cannot use the same laws, political institutions.