We have examined the role of monitoring scientific and technological achievements in the innovative development of the country’s economy, and also have described the stages of development of the organizational framework for monitoring and evaluating the achievements of domestic science. In the article we have proposed a scientific and methodological approach to the military-technical assessment of the academic and university sectors of science achievements, as well as industry, providing for the combined use of the expert competence assessment methodology, the T. Saaty hierarchy analysis method and the multicriteria stream ranking method. We believe that this approach makes it possible to select achievements from the set of results of scientific research and technological developments using the proposed set of indicators. Achievements, that have the greatest potential for use in the creation of promising, including non-traditional, types of weapons, military and special equipment, as well as for countering information, psychological, cybernetic and other threats to the security of the Russian Federation. We have tested the proposed approach, which confirmed its efficiency and the adequacy of the indicators used for the assessment.